“Will failure to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict mean a new Cold War in the Middle East,” By Joshua Landis

Will failure to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict mean a new Cold War in the Middle East
By Joshua Landis Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Is a new Cold War taking shape in the Middle East? It is not hard to understand why skeptics believe it may be. President Dmitry Medvedev visited Syria on Monday, the first ever visit by a Russian or Soviet head of state. Syrians are excited. They are hoping that Russia will resume its old role as armorer and advocate of those states prepared to “defend Arab rights” and resist U.S. hegemony.

When Barack Obama first became U.S. president, Syrians were hopeful that he would break the mold of U.S. policy and carry through with his promise to finally end the Arab-Israeli conflict based on land for peace. To Syrians, this means they will get back the Golan Heights, which Israel captured in 1967; it means a two-state solution for the Palestinians. For the past several months, Syrian authorities have been telling anyone who will listen in Washington that the one thing they want from the United States is help getting back the Golan. If Syria gets back its land, it will modify its alliances and end its enmity toward Israel, allowing for a new relationship with the United States. Today, that hope seems to be all but dashed.

It is in this context that we can understand the events of the last few months that have ended with renewed threats of war between Israel and Syria, the rapid deterioration of U.S.-Syria relations, and Syria’s effort to strengthen a system of alliances that it hopes will right the terrible imbalance in power between it and Israel — an imbalance which the United States supports and which Syria blames for Israel’s intransigence. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu claims that “the Golan will remain in our hands.” His refusal to stop expanding settlements in East Jerusalem and the West Bank in the face of U.S. urging suggests that the two-state solution for the Palestinians is doubtful.

Syrians are convinced that the Obama administration will cave into Israeli pressure to soft-pedal the peace process and put the best face on the status quo. With congressional electioneering in full swing and the presidential election not far behind, all signs are that Obama is feeling compelled to patch up frayed relations with Israel. This will be done at Syria’s expense. Hence, Israel and the United States joined voices in accusing Syria of supplying long-range missiles to Hezbollah. Also last week, Washington renewed sanctions on Syria. Why? Because U.S. officials said Syria continues “to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States.” The renewal of sanctions only reminded Syrians of how intractable U.S.-Syria enmity is and how dependent any improvement of relations will be on a Syria-Israel peace. This is why Syrian authorities have put so much hope in peace with Israel. They believe that if Syria can negotiate peace and get back the Golan, all other problems, such as the U.S.-Syria relationship and sanctions, will fix themselves with minimal tinkering.

So what are Damascus’s options in the face of Obama’s climb down and Israel’s refusal to trade land for peace?

Damascus insists that it will not give up its claim to the Golan or its right to resist occupation. This means arming Hezbollah and Hamas. Getting Russia on board Syria’s efforts to resist will be key, as Russia is the most likely country to help with more sophisticated missiles and anti-tank weapons, as well as anti-aircraft defense. From Syria’s point of view, it must improve its ability to defend against Israel’s periodic incursions and raise the cost of Israeli refusal to return the Golan.

Syria is doing everything it can to build up what it is calling a “northern alliance” between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. This is the primary building block in Syria’s strategy for countering Israel’s overwhelming military superiority. Rapidly improving relations with Turkey are at the heart of the alliance and breaking out of Syria’s narrow dependency on Iran. In the last two years, all visa requirements between the Turkey and Syria have been dropped, and trade has increased rapidly. In an effort to expand improving economic ties into the world of defense, Syria recently held military exercises with Turkey. It is no surprise that Medvedev will follow up his two-day Syria visit with a Turkey stopover. Assad has just concluded a tripartite summit in Istanbul with Prime Minister Reccep Tayyip Erdogan and the emir of Qatar. A spokesman at the Russian Embassy in Damascus told AFP, “We are seeking to recover lost ground with old friends.” On the agenda of Russia-Syria talks are the Mideast peace process, Iran’s nuclear program, and the bilateral arms trade between the two countries.

Russia is seeking to beef up its role in the region. It is helping rebuild the port of Tartus as a docking and repair station for the Russian fleet. It has also won contracts to play an expanded role in Syria’s gas and oil industry. A bevy of Russian businessmen are accompanying Medvedev to Damascus.

Syria is looking to Russia for help in deterring the United States and Israel. “After the USSR collapsed and Moscow voluntarily left the Middle East, the balance of power shifted in favor of Israel and the United States,” Samir Ismail, director of the Center for Strategic Studies at Damascus University, told the Russian news service, Ria Novosti. “The return of Russia, one of the poles of world policy, will bring balance, safety, and stability to the region,” he insisted. “Russia is a key player” and it “should force Israel to resume the peace process,” Samir added.

So where does this leave the United States? Syria must try to raise the cost of Washington’s support for Israel. It can do this in two ways: by attacking regional governments that ally with America as traitors to the “Arab cause,” and radicalizing their people by stressing the extent to which the United States is the enemy of Arabs and Muslims and sides unfairly with Israel. Syria will have to force the United States to decide as frequently as possible which side it is on. It will hang Israel around America’s neck and work to isolate both in the region.

America’s leading allies have been Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Egypt. The Saudis have shown some signs of distancing themselves from Washington and have reached out to both Russia and China to hedge their bets. Saudi-Syrian relations reached a low point during Israel’s invasion of Lebanon in 2006, when Syria accused Riyadh of supporting Israel against Hezbollah and called Saudi leaders “quasi-men.” Since then, Syria and Saudi Arabia have patched up their relations by agreeing not to allow differences over Lebanon to come between them. Saudi Arabia has shifted its attention away from Lebanon and toward Iraq, where it can cooperate with Damascus on stabilizing a post-American government. Both governments stood together in favoring Ayad Allawi as leader of a new Iraqi government. Syria has supported Saudi actions in Yemen. Jordan has also worked to improve relations with Syria. King Abdullah has warned the United States that it must pressure Netanyahu to stop settlement expansion for fear that war will break out.

Egypt’s relations with Damascus have been the most resistant to improvement. The two countries traded nasty accusations during Israel’s invasion of Gaza in 2008. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, in bringing a bunch of Hezbollah operatives to trial recently, has shown that Syria and Hezbollah threatened Egyptian state security. This was a blow to Syria. All the same, Syria will continue to paint Mubarak as a traitor and Israel-lover who is willing to starve the Palestinians. This is not good for the Egyptian president, who has extended an olive branch of sorts to Syria by speaking up in favor of Syria’s accession to the World Trade Organization and by championing a nuclear-weapons-free Middle East. Syria will work to isolate the United States in the Middle East.

Russia will fish in the troubled waters of the Middle East. American isolation can only redound to its advantage. The Arabs and Iran will look to Russia for arms. Russia can also be gratified by the deterioration of Turkey’s relations with both Israel and the United Stats. It will continue to look for ways to frustrate U.S. efforts to add teeth to its sanctions regime against Iran.

So long as America’s No. 1 foreign-policy goal in the region is to hurt Iran and help Israel, Russia will be drawn back into the region and a new Cold War will take shape. Washington’s failure to realign relations with Iran and Syria dooms it to repeat its past. But this time Israel will be more of a millstone around its neck as it thumbs it’s nose at international law and human rights. China also presents a new and potent challenge.

Gamal Abdul Nasser claimed that in the Middle East there was a role in search of a hero; he tried to fill it at great cost to Egypt. So long as the Arab-Israeli conflict remains unresolved, however, that role will exist. Iran and Syria are trying to fill it today. They claim to defend Arab and Muslim rights in the face of Israeli expansion and U.S. imperialism. If they are to have any success, they will need a larger power to champion their efforts. And Russia is the obvious candidate — that is, until China is prepared to throw its weight behind Middle East peacemaking. Syria is well aware that neither Russia nor China can dare challenge the United States or Israel for at least a decade, but Syria and Iran seem prepared to play for time. The alternative to taking the long view for Syria is the loss of the Golan and national humiliation.

Joshua Landis is director of the Center for Middle East Studies and associate professor at the University of Oklahoma. He is the author of the blog Syria Comment.

Comments (66)


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51. 100 INSHALLAH-ING AHMEDS said:

U.N. seeks torture probes in Syria, Yemen, Jordan

(Reuters) – The United Nations torture watchdog urged Syria, Yemen and Jordan Friday to investigate what it called numerous and credible allegations that their police and prison authorities routinely tortured detainees.
WORLD

Its 10 independent experts also voiced concern at “honor” crimes by family members in Syria and Jordan which go unpunished and violence against women and children in Yemen.

Their conclusions on a total of eight countries were issued at the end of a three-week meeting.

In Yemen, it voiced alarm at killings, forced disappearances, torture, arbitrary arrests and indefinite detentions without charge or trial carried out in the context of the fight against terrorism.

There was a “climate of impunity for perpetrators of acts of torture in Yemen,” the U.N. Committee against Torture said.

“No exceptional circumstances whatsoever can be invoked as a justification for torture and…anti-terrorism measures must be implemented with full respect for international human rights law,” it added.

Yemen’s government, struggling to stabilize a fractious country in which central authority is often weak, faces international pressure to quell domestic conflicts in order to fight a resurgent al Qaeda.

The U.N. torture watchdog also voiced concern at reports it had received that Syria has set up secret detention facilities under the command of intelligence services, where inmates are held incommunicado and subject to cruel treatment.

It cited “numerous reports of torture, ill-treatment, death in custody and incommunicado detention of people belonging to the Kurdish minority, in large part stateless, in particular political activists of Kurdish origin.”

“Moreover, the committee notes with concern reports of a growing trend of deaths of Kurdish conscripts who have died whilst carrying out their mandatory military service and whose bodies were returned to the families with evidence of severe injuries,” it said of Syria.

The U.N. experts urged Syrian authorities to clarify the case of Muhannad al-Hassani, president of the Syrian Organization for Human Rights, who was arrested last July on charges of “weakening national sentiment.”

A lawyer who has defended leading opposition figures, he won an international human rights award last week [ID:nLDE6461J1].

(Editing by Jonathan Lynn)

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May 14th, 2010, 5:04 pm

 

52. Akbar Palace said:

Off The Wall’s Painful Enterprise

Dear Shai
You have no idea how hard you and Yossi make it to keep slamming Israel.

OTW,

It really must take a toll on you. How do you do it?

Every-time i write something that negative about your country, a lingering feeling of unfairly characterizing people like the two of you, make my writing harder than it seems.

The pain must be excruciating.

I believe that like any country, Israel has the potential for peace and justice, I hope that as a country, it will realize the best of her potential.

How can you remain so optimistic in the face of Zionist crimes?

As I hope Syria, Lebanon, and all countries and people get to do, hopefully in partnership, and most importantly unmolested.

Don’t forget Hamas, Hezbollah, and Iran. They deserve praise too.

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May 14th, 2010, 6:54 pm

 

53. jad said:

“Don’t forget Hamas, Hezbollah, and Iran. They deserve praise too.”

They actually do, they deserve every praise from every human because they are keeping garbage people like you and those who you support away from ruling the world.

Here you go:

GOD/AlLAH PROTECT THE RESISTANCE AND MAKE THEM STRONGER!

You can drop dead now AP!

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May 14th, 2010, 7:18 pm

 

54. Off the Wall said:

100 APs
Your appreciation for humanity seems to equal your intelligence, at very low level. Hence your cynical comment. I am hopeful about humanity’f future. And it is only people like you, in every country, who are too selfish, self indulged and arrogant, to recognize the real human story unfolding around them. The good news is that it unfolds despite of them. South Africa’s apartheid is bye bye, so is slavery. Oppression of women will go, so will the murderous occupation. Despite of you, and your teachers who taught you to ridicule a moment of openness.

The pain is not excruciating, but it is hard for one to have to be always harsh. But what Israel is doing, leaves to space for kindness. So buzz off and learn some humanity, you have been living so long among AIPAC robots, get out and observe real people who develop bonds with objectives other than land grab, subjugation, and dehumanization of others.

I told you you need to get your money back. You are refusing even the simplest opportunity to humanize the people of Israel in the eye of those who you want to keep them as enemies. Sometimes I wonder how much people like you collect for every lost life. Must be worth selling your soul.

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May 14th, 2010, 7:22 pm

 

55. Henry said:

Oh jeez Josh Landis’ blog has turned into a mouthpiece of Hamas-supporters.

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May 14th, 2010, 7:30 pm

 

56. Off the Wall said:

In my comment #55, which I could not correct for strange reasons, the following:

But what Israel is doing, leaves to space for kindness

should be read as

But what Israel is doing, leaves NO space for kindness

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May 14th, 2010, 8:45 pm

 

57. Off the Wall said:

Majed
As shameful the whole debacle is, out of the dark rises some light. Syrian NGOs are calling for dismissal of the trial. They are forming a backbone, and are daring to talk. It is good news, small but encouraging. More will come and the Maleh debacle will become more embarrassing by the day, as it should.

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May 14th, 2010, 8:49 pm

 

58. Hassan said:

Off The Wall:

You are monopolizing Syria Comment. Let other people communicate.

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May 14th, 2010, 8:58 pm

 

59. Off the Wall said:

Hassan,
Please don’t teach me etiquette. Here some stats for you and I did bot read your complaint about monopolizing the site.

Thread: “Will failure to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict mean a new Cold War in the Middle East,
AP: 8,13,16,23,27,28,32,34,38,44,52,53 Total: 12/59
OTW: 40,41,46,49,55,57 (correction), 58, and now 60 Total: 8/59

Thread: Sheba Farms
AP: 3,7,12,14,18,26,28,31,33,37 Total: 10/85
OTW: 66, 82, 83 Total: 3/85

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May 14th, 2010, 9:40 pm

 

60. scott sullivan said:

Germany intends to build a strategic corridor to the Middle East via the Balkans from Croatia, Albania, and Turkey to the Iran-Pakistan Axis, which will outfit Germany’s nuclear program so that Gemany can recoup its WW II losses.

Meanwhile, the Arab States, backstopped by Russia and France, are focused on a strategic alignment of Russia, Greece, Serbia, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Hezbollah, the PA, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

China’s role in this strategic realignment has yet to be determined. On the positive side, China has just signed an agreement with Karzai that will authorize China to take over peacekeeping in Afghanistan as US forces are withdawn. With this agreement, signed just a few days before Karzai met with Obama, China dealt a significant blow to Pakistan/ISI-CIA intervention in Afghanistan. On the negative, pro-Iran/Germany side, China has just agreed to supply nuclear materials to Pakistan. My view is that at the end of the day, China will align with Afghanistan, not Pakistan, Iran. and Germany.

Finally, Iraq’s role in this strategic realignment — for or against Syria, France and Russia — has yet to be determined.

See below for an excellent Syrian analysis of the ongoing power realignment in the Middle East.

Syria asks Russia to lean on Israel
By Sami Moubayed

DAMASCUS – Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has been in the headlines, first for describing his predecessor Joseph Stalin as a “totalitarian dictator” and then for making the first state visit to Syria by a Kremlin chief since the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution.

Medvedev met with Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal during his Syria visit and in an unprecedented move wrote a front-page editorial for Syria’s daily al-Watan on how important bilateral relations are between Damascus and Moscow.

During the two-day visit, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his Russian counterpart agreed a 14-point declaration which included periodic presidential visits as well as cooperation on

tourism, education, military affairs, investment and trade and prevention of the spread of weapons of mass destruction.

A strongly worded statement was also issued calling for peace in the Middle East based on United Nations resolutions and the restoration of the June 4, 1967 borders of Israel, which would return all occupied land to the Arabs. It also called for a solution to the Palestinian refugee question and the creation of a viable Palestinian state.

At the summit there were calls for Russia to use its influence to convince the Israelis – who the Syrians insist are not interested in peace – back to the negotiating table. This has long been an objective of the Kremlin.

Damascus also called on Medvedev to get the US, “which is not doing enough”, to jump-start serious peace talks on restoring the Golan Heights to Syria. Assad called on Medvedev to use Russia’s influence – given that it was one of the co-chairs of the Madrid Peace Conference of 1991 – to “convince Israel of the necessity of peace”.

For his part, although promising to do his best, Medvedev did not sound optimistic that any breakthroughs were on the horizon. He mention an “increase in tension” that might, he prophesized, “lead to a catastrophe”. If that happens, he said, “Moscow will not stand with arms folded”.

Russian pressure on Israel – depending on who one talks to in the Middle East – might or might not lead to any breakthrough. The Israelis have never trusted the Russians – not during the Cold War nor since – claiming the Russians always take the side of the Palestinians in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Since his landmark visit to Paris in the summer of 2008 the Syrian president has been urging world capitals to play a serious role in bolstering regional peace talks. The US administration of George W Bush was not interested and today the Barack Obama administration is seemingly unable to apply any real pressure on the Israelis, thanks to a troublesome congress at home and a hardline government in Israel.

The Israelis apparently never forgave Obama for his speech in Cairo in June 2009, in which he promised to bring the Palestinians justice and end Israeli settlements in their lands. Earlier this year, they threw dust in the eyes of Vice President Joseph Biden by announcing that they were about to construct 1,600 new settlements in Jerusalem during his high-profile visit to Israel to begin “proximity talks”.

United States Middle East envoy George Mitchell has met with both nation’s leaders in an attempt to rekindle peace talks but few are optimistic they will lead anywhere. Palestinian President Mahmud Abbas at best only represents 50% of the Palestinian street in the West Bank as the other half, controlled by Hamas in Gaza, is categorically opposed to any talks as long as the Israeli siege of the strip continues.

The fact that Abbas cannot abandon certain rights related to Jerusalem and refugees – and the likelihood of new war erupting between Israel and Hezbollah this summer – makes it highly doubtful that any breakthrough can be made in the Middle East, no matter how hard the Russians try.

Real progress, however, can be made in economic matters between Syria and Russia. The Syrians are focused on becoming a regional hub in terms of gas, oil and transportation, building on their excellent relations with countries like Russia and Turkey.

When addressing one of the numerous Syrian-Turkish business forums, Assad once spoke of an “economic space” that “one day will be complete, [where] we will then be linking the Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea and the Arab Gulf”. He added, “When we link these four seas, we will become the obligatory connector for this entire world, in terms of investment and transport.”

Syria could serve as a hub for joint investments in energy, industry, agriculture, telecommunications, banking and technology as well as a route for Arab and Asian oil and gas to European markets via the Mediterranean. Turkey could then become a connecting point for electricity networks between Europe and the Arab and Asian regions.

Transportation of goods by rail is already underway from the Iraqi port city of Um Qasr in the Arabian Gulf to the Syrian port city of Latakia, which lies on the Mediterranean. There is also a project to bring the Kirkuk-Banias pipeline into operation with a capacity of 200,000 barrels per day (bpd). Another pipeline is in the works, with a capacity of 1.4 million bpd that will link the Iraqi gas plant in Akkas to a Syrian plant linked to the Jordanian and Egyptian plants which would branching out to Lebanon and Europe.

During a 2009 visit by Greek President Karolos Papoulias to Damascus, he raised the same topic with Syrian officials. His country, he said, could serve as a connecting point between the Black Sea, the Adriatic Ocean and the Balkan Peninsula, where 4,000 Greek and Russian companies are already in operation. A Russian company is currently working on two gas factories in the Syrian midland, with a production capacity of 10 billion cubic meters of gas per day, while a Russian oil company is undergoing excavation works in the Abu Kamal region, near the Syrian border with Iraq.

The Syrians believe they are capable of becoming the arrival and distribution point for goods coming from the Mediterranean, the Gulf and neighboring countries, something raised before the Turks at a summit in Istanbul on May 8, and with Medvedev during his recent visit to Damascus on May 11. To do that, the Syrians need peace in the Middle East, something that is becoming increasingly far-fetched given the inability of the Obama administration to apply any pressure on Israel. This is where Russian diplomacy can come into play.

The two sides have a long history of sound relations dating to the 1940s. Veteran Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov famously visited Damascus in the summer of 1944, refusing to recognize the French Mandate over Syria or meet any French official during his stay, insisting that his only interlocutors were elected Syrian officials.

Two years later, the Soviets used their veto power at the UN Security Council to drown a European initiative to extend the French Mandate over Syria and in 1956, during the height of the Suez Crisis, then-Syrian president Shukri al-Quwatli landed in Moscow to start a formal relationship that has been uninterrupted for the past 54 years, followed by his defense minister Khaled al-Azm in the summer of 1957, where he signed economic and military treaties with the Soviets.

Back then, Quwatli pleaded for support of the “great Russian army that defeated Hitler” in saving Egypt from a British-French-Israeli war over the Suez Canal. The relationship was further cemented with strong Russian backing for Syria during the war of 1967, taking a new turn when president Hafez al-Assad came to power in 1970.

Although Assad refused to sign a friendship agreement with the Soviet Union throughout the first 10 years of his presidency, he nevertheless relied on Soviet experts to train and arm the Syrian army, build roads, bridges and the famous Euphrates Dam. Since he came to power in 2000, Bashar al-Assad visited Russia in 2005, 2006 and in 2008, less than two weeks after the US-backed Georgian army rumbled into South Ossetia, which infuriated the Kremlin.

Sending a strong message to the Russians ahead of his 2008 trip, Assad spoke to the Russian Kommerstant newspaper: “The Caucasus and Europe are impossible without Russia … I think that after the crisis with Georgia, Russia has become only stronger … It is important that Russia takes the position of a superpower, and then all the attempts to isolate it will fail.”

His words were music to the ears of officials at the Kremlin, who saw a good ally in Assad, a man who realizes that the Russians are back and intends on using this strong reality to advance his own country’s interests, vis-a-vis stability of the Middle East and restoration of the occupied Golan Heights to its rightful owners.

Sami Moubayed is editor-in-chief of Forward Magazine in Syria.

atimes.com 14 may, 2010
————————

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May 15th, 2010, 5:08 pm

 

61. Akbar Palace said:

Between Iraq and a Hard Place

Henry, Hassan,

We all know how “hard” it is to “slam Israel”, apparently for Syria Comment participants, it is even harder to slam Syria, Hezbollah, Hamas, and their Iranian overlords…

Iranian cleric wants creation of ‘Greater Iran’

http://apnews.myway.com/article/20100515/D9FN9INO3.html

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May 15th, 2010, 7:31 pm

 

62. abu arab said:

In the name of God the Merciful
The existence of the Zionist entity in the heart of the Arab and Muslim is itself a strange
Because the Zionist entity is not shared with the Arab world of anything characteristics such as religion, customs
Traditions and language. The existence of Israel within the Arab world is a big mistake, and constant tension
In the Middle East, and we note since 1948. Such as the entry of foreign bodies within the human body begins
Body fever, tension and fatigue and to ensure that until the UFOs.
To all Arab and Islamic countries to form the Ministry of Defence and one common to all States and the expulsion of the Jews
From the Middle East. This is the best choice for Arabs and Jews in that one because Bjrdasiraiil within the Arab world
Will feel the Arab world would not be true of the world would not be true of the Jewish people will never feel the stability and comfort, unless
Came out of Palestine, all Palestine greetings to all

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May 28th, 2010, 11:23 am

 

63. abu arab said:

The existence of the Zionist entity in the heart of the Arab-Muslim is in itself a strange
Because the Zionist entity is not shared with the Arab world, anything that characteristics such as religion, customs
Traditions and language. The existence of Israel within the Arab world is a big mistake, and constant tension
In the Middle East also note since 1948. Such as the entry of foreign objects inside the human body begins
Body fever, tension and fatigue and to ensure even go out foreign objects.
To all Arab and Islamic countries to form the Ministry of Defence and one common to all States and the expulsion of the Jews
From the Middle East. This is the best choice for Arabs and Jews in that one because he Bjrdasiraiil within the Arab world
Will feel the Arab world would not be true of the world would not be true of the Jewish people will never feel the stability and comfort, but if
Came out of Palestine, all Palestine greetings to all

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August 28th, 2010, 2:36 pm

 

64. BrotherSka said:

Let me recommend ‘Solving the Arab-Israeli Conflict by Walter Phillips. Walter acknowledges the specified two pre-conditions for peace, namely 1) The Islamic nations must recognize Israel’s right to exist in peace in the region. 2) Israel must return the Gaza and West Bank areas.

He then shows how these pre-conditions conflict with the following aspects of Islamic and Jewish religious traditions. 1) Mohammed’s final command that only one religion must occupy the Arabian Peninsula. 2) Moses’ final command that the Israelites must occupy the Promised land, which includes Gaza and the West Bank.

Previous attempts at finding a peaceful solution have largely ignored these religious traditions, which has forced both sides into negotiating in bad-faith in order to avoid the fatal consequences of making unpopular decisions. Walter resolves the religious issues and proposes an equitable political solution.

You can follow discussion on the book at the following link.
http://researching.wordpress.com/2010/01/05/solving-the-arab-israeli-conflict/

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September 1st, 2010, 5:56 pm

 

65. arab said:

There is no democracy in Israel as a state is illegitimate and illegal and not recognized
Evidence of this if anyone wanted to write a comment in the Israeli websites
Does not allow him or be there are many obstacles to prevent him from writing a comment The reasons for Arab-Israeli conflict is the occupation of Palestine in 1948.
Palestine Arab Islamic state like the rest of the Arab and Islamic states surrounding
Them. Means that there are Jews and Zionists in Palestine a big mistake, because this entity
Zionist is not consistent with the surrounding area (such as language, customs, traditions and religion)
The only solution to end the Arab-Israeli conflict is the expulsion of Jews from Palestine
All of Palestine. The Jewish people will not rest and will not feel comfortable and stability
But if it gets out of Palestine and the Middle East completely. If people continue to
Jews in Palestine and the Middle East, the death and destruction will continue.
Palestine Arab Islamic state and will remain

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November 2nd, 2010, 4:43 am

 

66. Melvin said:

Sorry for an error. I ment to say: You may not see this as the Solution to the Middle East Conflict, but I certainly do.

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May 16th, 2011, 10:42 am

 

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