“Crunch Time for the Syrian Regime” by Peter Harling

A Friend writes:

I think they are ready for the national dialogue now. I was watching Syrian TV minutes ago and 2 MP said the following:

MP Mohammad Habash: “The era of the mukhabarat in Syria is OVER. I know that they don’t like me saying this but I don’t care”

MP Ghaboush: “I call for a national dialogue. It should start immediately”

Again this was on State TV!!

Crunch Time for the Syrian Regime
Peter Harling in Foreign Policy

Seen from Damascus, the crisis that is gripping Syria is fast approaching crunch-time. The regime appears to have stopped pretending it can offer a way out. More than ever, it portrays the confrontation as a war waged against a multifaceted foreign enemy which it blames for all casualties. This narrative, which informs the security services’ brutal response to protests, has cost the authorities the decisive battle for perceptions abroad, at home, and even in central Damascus — a rare bubble of relative calm that has now entered into a state of utter confusion.

The primary benefit of observing events from the Syrian capital is to measure just how unreliable all sources of information have become. Local media tell a tale of accusations and denials in which, incredibly, security services are the sole victims, persecuted by armed gangs. Where the regime initially acknowledged civilian martyrs and sought to differentiate between legitimate grievances and what it characterized as sedition, such efforts have come to an end.

For its part, the foreign media, denied access by the regime, relies virtually exclusively on material produced by on-the-ground protesters, the dependability of which has proven uneven. The novel phenomenon of “eye-witnesses” further blurs the picture. Outside observers have sought to counter the state-imposed blackout by recruiting correspondents, often haphazardly, flooding the country with satellite phones and modems. Several cases of false testimonies have cast doubts on such procedures but, for lack of an alternative, they largely continue to shape coverage of events.

Under the circumstances, Damascenes have but one option: to work the phones, calling relatives, friends, and colleagues throughout the country in a desperate attempt to form their own opinion. They hear and tell stories that are self-contradictory. Some tend to confirm the existence of armed agents provocateurs; many others credibly blame the regime for the bulk of the violence. Instances of sectarian polarization surface in some areas, while examples of cross-community solidarity burgeon in others. Neighbors often provide inconsistent accounts while people who share socio-economic backgrounds react to similar events in contrasting ways.

Such chaos is inherent in times of crisis, but it also is a reflection of the profound mistrust between citizens and their state, which has failed to offer any point of reference around which undecided Syrians could rally. To the contrary: the regime has systematically fostered a sense of bewilderment and anxiety. Most damaging of all has been the constant contradiction between its words and deeds.

Regime assertions notwithstanding, evidence regarding excessive use of force by security forces in circumstances that cannot plausibly be described as representing an immediate threat is piling up. Given the extraordinary deployment of forces and security lockdown in and around the capital last weekend, it is simply impossible to imagine that so-called agitators could be behind the bloodshed. Even where the regime’s responsibility in both the onset and escalation of confrontation is beyond doubt, as in the southern city of Deraa, the regime feels the need to undertake an endless “investigation” before holding anyone accountable, even as arbitrary arrests remain the norm when dealing with protesters.

On the political front, the regime has lifted the emergency law but allows security services to conduct business as usual, illustrating how irrelevant the concept of legality was in the first place. It authorizes demonstrations while stating they are no longer needed and labeling them as seditious. It speaks of reforming the media and, in the same breath, fires an oh-so-loyal editor-in-chief for straying from the official line. It insists on ignoring the most outrageous symbols of corruption. It promises a multi-party law even as it proves how little power is vested in civilian institutions. Finally, and although it has engaged in numerous bilateral talks with local representatives, it resists convening a national dialogue, which might offer a slim chance of finding an inclusive and credible way forward.

In more parts of the country than one can count, protesters now face only the most brutal, repressive side of the regime. For those who mourn the dead and know them not as saboteurs and traitors, but as relatives, neighbors, and friends, there is nothing left to discuss. Slowly but surely, these ink spots of radicalized opposition are spreading and joining in an increasingly determined and coordinated movement to topple the regime.

Many Syrians — even among those without sympathy for the regime — still resist this conclusion. Their arguments should not be ignored. They dread the breakup of a state whose institutions, including the military, are weak even by regional standards. They fear that sectarian dynamics or a hegemonic religious agenda could take hold. They suspect Syria would cave in to foreign interference. And they distrust an exiled opposition that is all too reminiscent of Iraq’s.

The regime appears to be calculating that the prospect of a bloodbath will prove the strongest argument of all. The scenario is both risky and self-defeating, for if it will be a tragedy for the Syrian people, it will also spell disaster for the regime itself. Instead, it should immediately rein in security services, take decisive action against those responsible for state violence, and initiate a genuine, all-inclusive national dialogue. This could provide an opportunity for representatives of the popular movement to emerge, for their demands to be fleshed out, and for authorities to demonstrate they have more to offer than empty words and certain doom.

Peter Harling is the Iraq-Syria-Lebanon project director with the International Crisis Group

Comments (10)

أمنية said:

what national dialogue it would be without Daraa the one and only province which paid so we could have some change .
do u really expect Daraa to join us in anything after this week? i won’t blame them if they didn’t!

April 29th, 2011, 4:56 pm


qunfuz said:

I understand Amniyeh’s point. Still, I think it’s an excellent article with an excellent conclusion.

April 29th, 2011, 7:06 pm


why-discuss said:

The saddest thing about the Deraa people is that they have be abused by a group of people who think that the more martyrs there are the more chances they can get into power. It is now clear that, like in Ein Helwe in Lebanon, Salafists have inflitrated the protesters and created enough chaos so the number of martyrs becomes sufficient.
It is yet to see if they will succeed in hijacking the legitimate demands from the protesters.

April 29th, 2011, 7:19 pm


haz said:

The facts in Deraa are;

local mukhabarat arrested a group of teenagers for writing anti-regime slogans;

Their family members protested after being given no information about the children;

Local security shot some of these protesters;

They also shot people attending the funerals of those shot in the first place;

The children were released – family members claim the children were tortured;

The government in Damascus apologised, replaced members of the local government.

There is no evidence that any outside political group is driving these protests.

All footage from Deraa shows unarmed protesters.

No member of the security establishment has been held accountable for torture or killings.

April 29th, 2011, 10:01 pm


sufian Kardahi said:

Thank you Haz for perfect summary that shows how bogus all the syrian regime claims

April 29th, 2011, 11:16 pm


Solitarius said:

Yes HAZ.. because the people who are uploading these videos to the Syrian revolution page and then to Aljazeera are going to show you the army individuals and their raids on the security check points and police stations, right?

nobody denies the abuse and crimes committed by the mayor and the security officers in Daraa in the first few days. But what happened next is far from a peaceful protesting movement.

April 30th, 2011, 5:08 am


why-discuss said:


How happen that after 3 days of siege there are soldiers been killed, by whom? Don’t give me that story that they kill each other.

It may have started simply and it was badly managed by the local authority but there is no doubt that they are arms caches in Deraa and that arms have been used. They will be found and the Salafists who instigated this violence punished.

The media says there are dead bodies in the street because no one can take them away and then we see video of women and children demonstrating asking for water and electricity.. Strange, no?
The whole Deraa story will be unfolded when the events will be over.

April 30th, 2011, 9:03 am


aboali said:

A strikingly insightful article by Harding, pretty much sums up the situation in Syria.

April 30th, 2011, 10:54 am


balkanac said:

Oh boy…

FP is mostly comprised from neo-realists minded stuff, meaning the United States of Empire is in command of the world. Along with them is ICG based near NATO, whoever sees anything positive in what is coming from these neo-colonialists is either fool or clueless.

April 30th, 2011, 8:07 pm


Mali Majnoon said:

May 1st, 2011, 2:44 pm


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